January 3, 2009
Chemistry in the REAL world (IV)
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
(I seriously need to stop using the roman numerals. 4 and 6, 9 and 11 always confuse me….)
Anyway, let us start this post–
Anyone who took sophomore chemistry would remember one of the biggest rules of Chemistry–the law of entropy: disorder creates more disorder. This is very applicable to our world today. The U.S. economy is one, war and destruction, environmental natural disasters and instability, capitalism (requires more buy and spending to work–it cannot by its very nature by stable), and even friendships. If some friendships go wrong, it may keep getting worse and worse without outside intervention (random variables) but if things keep going the way they are without human beings changing, it will lead to more and more disorder. So people, for the sake of the WORLD, be better people!
Chemical Bonding–Electrostatic Bonding:
All bonds between atoms are electrostatic. The electrons of one atom get attracted to the nucleus of the other atom (due to protons in the nucleus) and vice versa. If the bonds are stable, more atoms of the same reaction may react to form the same compound and connect with other compounds to make solids and liquids (gases are pretty spaced out, but up to you if you consider that compounds coming together.) Sound familiar? It is a bit like human friendships–there are things that attract us or are similar between people and things that repel (HAHA) or are different between people, but a relationship can still occur if it is in balance. Going on either extreme can jeopardize the bond (too much of one charge can break the compound), but if remains stable, it will grow even more and remain stable over time (i.e. solid, liquid). (Unless some random crazy things occur, but that applies the same to Chemistry.)
(D=Density, m=mass (grams), V=Volume)
Kind of like with gases in Chemistry, put one in a smaller container and it gets more dense, whereas you put one in a big container and it is less dense. If you also put more gas in the same container, it gets more dense and take it out, it gets less dense. It sort of reminds me of food–baking. If you bake a cake in a big tray, it will be more spread out and less dense when you eat it. But if you put the batter in a tiny 4×3 inch tray for a normal cake, it is going to pack a really big taste per bite because it will be very dense (and that can affect taste).
Stoichiometry–Graham’s Law: u= ([3kT]/m)^1/2 —>basically the whole thing is square rooted.
(u=average speed of a gas molecule, k=gas constant, T=Temperature, m=mass of gas molecule)
Basically, the formula looks at the weight and temperature of a compound to determine its speed when in motion (molecules are always moving). Higher temperature makes it faster (because higher temperature is normally correlated with more heat=more energy) and the bigger the atom is, the slower it goes. If the speed increases for a compound, it heats up. So what does that mean in our world? If someone runs at the same speed, he/she will start to sweat because he/she is getting hotter. If a person is heavy a.k.a. fat, the person can’t run as fast as someone else who is lighter (considering all other elements about the fat and skinny person are the same.) Or if a person is running and goes faster, mass will slowly decrease and the person starts to lose weight. (Even if a person gets hot and temperature of the person goes up, sweat releases some of the ‘mass’ of the person.)
Poorly worded, but I hope you understood Graham’s law as it is like someone working out. 😄
Islam Surah Nur and the atom:
Before I explain anything, read these two ayahs from Surah Nur (35 and 36):
Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth. The similitude of His light is as a niche wherein is a lamp. The lamp is in a glass. The glass is as it were a shining star. (This lamp is) kindled from a blessed tree, an olive neither of the East nor of the West, whose oil would almost glow forth (of itself) though no fire touched it. Light upon light. Allah guides unto His light whom He will. And Allah set forth for mankind similitudes, for Allah is Knower of all things. (35) (This lamp is found) in houses which Allah has allowed to be exalted and that His name shall be remembered therein. Therein do offer praise to Him at morning and evening. (36)
Now pay close attention to the analogy (similar to my Rumi class post ) We have an object with a center that emits light and fueled by an olive from a blessed tree (for non Muslims reading this–the tree and olive in reference is not like the olive trees that we think of. It is beyond this world [note: not against, beyond]). The olive on a tree is near the tip or away from the center. An atom has a nucleus and the electrons are in the outer rim and when they react, normally a light is emitted. (Not as bright as what is mentioned here) and atoms are layered with invisible shells similar to the glass in the analogy. Here we see a similarity between something so Grand, so something so small. The lamp analogy works similarly with the human body where the light would be the heart of the human being. (Note: the location of the light in the lamp is not specified, but my Rumi professor said slightly off center. But nucleuses and atoms aren’t fully spherical either….)
I just found that interesting and you can also compare that analogy to galaxies as the most bright stars are slightly off center in the galaxy and there is an invisible barrier in which the light emits through.
…THAT was long….